Sayings of the Salaf Regarding Over-Eating

It is related that al-Husayn bin Abd al-Rahmaan (rahimahullaah) said:   
An abundance (excess) of food kills the heart just like excess water kills the plant. [He also said]: It used to be said, "Wisdom does not reside with a full stomach."
Mawsoo'ah Ibn Abi al-Dunyaa (4/96) through Hayat al-Salaf of Ahmad al-Tayyar.
It is related that al-Hasan al-Basree (rahimahullaah) said:   
A Muslim would be put to shame if it was said to him, "You have a big belly." [He also said]: O son of Aadam, eat for a third of your stomach, drink a third of it and leave a third of your stomach to breathe and think. [He also said]: The ordeal (calamity) of your father, Aadam (alayhis salaam) was a morsel (of food), and this will be your ordeal until the Day of Judgement.
Mawsoo'ah Ibn Abi al-Dunyaa (4/94-5) and Jaami' al-Uloom wal-Hikam (p. 553) through Hayat al-Salaf of Ahmad al-Tayyar.
Note: That which is known from the Salaf is that they ate food in moderation and preferred periods of hunger because it softens the heart and endows wisdom and leaves the intellect and mind able to think clearly. al-Hasan al-Basree (rahimahullaah) invited a man to food and the man said, "I've already eaten and I am not able to take more", so al-Hasan said, "Subhaanallaah! Does a believer eat until he is not able to return for more?" Mawsoo'ah Ibn Abi al-Dunyaa (7/483). Note also that obesity arising due to gluttony and excess eating is what is blameworthy.
It is related that Umar bin al-Khattaab (radiallaahu anhu) said:   
O people, beware of gluttony (excess) with respect to food, for it makes one lazy towards prayer, harms (corrupts) the body and makes (a person) inherit disease. However, it is upon you to have moderation in your nourishment, for it is nearer to rectitude, further away from excess and more fortifying for worshipping Allaah. And a servant does not perish until he prefers his desire (shahwah) over his religion.

And it is related that Abdullah bin Adiyy said:   
Abdullah bin Umar used to have a freed slave, and once he returned from Iraaq. He came and gave salutations to him and said, "I have brought you a gift." He said, "And what is it?" He said, "Jawaarish." He (Ibn Umar) said, "And what is jawaarish?" He said, "It helps to digest food" He (Ibn Umar) said, "I have never filled my stomach (completely) with food for forty-years, so what am I going to do with it?"
Mawsoo'ah Ibn Abi al-Dunyaa (4/92) and Sifat al-Safwah (1/272) through Hayat al-Salaf of Ahmad al-Tayyar.
It is related that Maalik bin Deenaar (rahimahullaah) said:   
Eating to the fill hardens the heart and weakens the body. [And he also said]: Whoever gains mastery over his stomach, will gain mastery over all the righteous actions.
Mawsoo'ah Ibn Abi al-Dunyaa (4/96) through Hayat al-Salaf of Ahmad al-Tayyar.

Note: Eating to the fill is harmful to both health (sihhah) and faith (eemaan) and discipline in controlling one's appetite leads to discipline over all the righteous actions. If you can control the desires of the belly, then that training provides the patience required to master the (performance of) righteous deeds.

Source: Taqwa and Your Stomach: Pious 

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